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Papers and articles regarding GUIs:

Sketchpad“Sketchpad: A man-machine graphical communication system” by Ivan E. Sutherland, from proceedings of AFIPS 1963
    The seminal paper describing Sketchpad, a system using the first graphical user interface
Xerox Star/ViewPoint/GlobalView“Microelectronics and the Personal Computer” by Alan C. Kay, from Scientific American 1977
    A seminal paper about the possibilities of personal computing, exemplified in Xerox Alto
Xerox Star/ViewPoint/GlobalView“Xerox xooms toward the office of the future” by Bro Uttal, from Fortune 1981
    An article about Xerox Star and changes in Xerox’s Office Products Division
Xerox Star/ViewPoint/GlobalView“The Star user interface: an overview” by David Canfield Smith, Charles Irby, Ralph Kimball and Eric Harslem, from proceedings of AFIPS 1982
    An illustrated description of the Xerox 8010 “Star” interface
Xerox Star/ViewPoint/GlobalView“A retrospective on the development of Star” by Eric Harslem and LeRoy E. Nelson, from from proceedings of ICSE 1982
    A rather technical look at Xerox Star – not much of GUI-related information, but helpful in putting the development of 8010 into context
Xerox Star/ViewPoint/GlobalView“Designing the Star User Interface” by Dr. David Canfield Smith, Charles Irby, Ralph Kimball, Bill Verplank and Eric Harslem, from Byte 1982
    Extensive breakdown of rules and ideas behind Xerox Star interface (with screenshots)
Xerox Star/ViewPoint/GlobalView“Human factors testing in the design of Xerox’s 8010 ‘Star’ office workstation” by William L. Bewley, Teresa L. Roberts, David Schroit and William L. Verplank, from CHI ‘83 Conference Proceedings
    A description of various user tests conducted while developing the Xerox Star user interface
Visi On“A visual counterpart of the top of your desk” by , from Personal Computing 1983
    Short review of VisiOn
Visi OnLisa Office System“VisiCorp’s VisiOn” by Phil Lopiccola and Rachael Wrege, from Popular Computing 1983
    A review of VisiOn, with some comparisons to Apple Lisa
Visi On“Visi On’s Interface Design” by George Woodmansee, from Byte 1983
    An article describing the methods and concepts used during creation of Visi On
Lisa Office System“Lisa’s alternative operating system” by Bruce Daniels, from Computer Design 1983
    A rather technical look at Lisa’s operating system
Lisa Office System“Accounting for Lisa and the future” by David Hunter, from Softalk 1983
    A portrait of Exec BPI System, a company using Apple Lisa for its accounting
Lisa Office System“How Apple presents Lisa” by David Durkee, from Softalk 1983
    Article on the ways Apple is tutoring Lisa users
Visi On“Backtalk” by Tommy Gear, from Softalk 1983
    A very strange, almost advertising-like column on the virtues of VisiCorp and VisiOn
Xerox Star/ViewPoint/GlobalView“The lab that ran away from Xerox” by Bro Uttal, from Fortune 1983
    Xerox Palo Alto Research Center, people behind it, and transformation of Alto into the Star
Lisa Office System“Fortune Product of the Year Award” by Rosalind Klein, from Fortune 1983
    A short blurb on Lisa receiving an award for its user-friendliness
Lisa Office System“The integrated software and user interface of Apple’s Lisa” by Edward W. Birss, from proceedings of the AFIPS 1984 National Computer Conference
    Description of basic rules governing the Lisa GUI
Visi On“The Visi On™ experience – From concept to marketplace” by George Woodmansee, from Proceedings of INTERACT ’84
    Similar paper from a Human-Computer Interaction conference, outlining Visi On’s development
Mac OS“A tour of the Mac desktop” by Lon Poole, from Macworld 1984
    An overview of Macintosh’s GUI
oNLine System/AugmentXerox Star/ViewPoint/GlobalView“Of mice and men” by Steven Levy, from Popular Computing 1984
    A story on Douglas Engelbart and his most popular invention
Mac OSVisi OnXerox Star/ViewPoint/GlobalViewLisa Office System“The desktop environment” by Paul Bonner, from Personal Computing 1984
    An article about pros and cons of desktop GUIs and the 1984’s status quo
Mac OS“Evaluating the Macintosh Finder” by Mark S. Jennings, from Byte 1984
    A look at shortcomings of first edition of Macintosh’s graphical user interface
GEM“A GEM from DRI?” by Michael J. Miller, from Popular Computing 1985
    A short announcement of Graphics Environment Manager
Lisa Office System“LisaLearning” by John M. Carroll and Sandra A. Mazur, from IEEE Computer 1986
    A thorough evaluation of LisaLearning software
Lisa Office System“Apple Lisa Graphical Object-Oriented User Interface” by David T. Craig, 1987
    An outline of Lisa’s user interface principles
OPEN LOOK“Face to face with Open Look” by Tony Hoeber, from Byte 1988
    An initial evaluation of OPEN LOOK
The X Window System“The X Window System” by Dick Pountain, from Byte 1989
    Technical description of The X Window System
The X Window SystemCommon Desktop Environment“OSF/Motif” by John Paul, from Byte 1989
    A first look at OSF/Motif
SketchpadoNLine System/Augment“Of mice and menus: Designing the user-friendly interface” by Tekla S. Perry and John Voelcker, from IEEE Spectrum 1989
    A history of early GUIs, full of interesting tidbits
Xerox Star/ViewPoint/GlobalView“The Xerox Star: A retrospective” by Jeff Johnson, Teresa L. Roberts, William Verplank, David C. Smith, Charles H. Irby, Marian Beard and, from IEEE Computer 1989
    A description of Xerox Star’s design, development, features and evolution
Xerox Star/ViewPoint/GlobalViewLisa Office SystemCommon Desktop EnvironmentNewWaveMac OS“Of mice and menus: Designing the user-friendly interface” by Tekla S. Perry and John Voelcker, from IEEE Spectrum 1989
    A history of early GUIs, full of interesting tidbits
Lisa Office System“Apple, early officers face trial over Twiggy” by Carolyn Said, from MacWEEK 1989
    Short piece on Apple’s problems with proprietary Twiggy drives
Sketchpad“The father of computer graphics” by Don Bissell, from Byte 1990
    A little piece on Ivan Sutherland’s unique Sketchpad
The X Window SystemOS/2“The X attitude” by Marshall Brain, from Byte 1991
    Pros and cons of The X Window System
Magic Cap“Just like magic?” by Tom R. Halfhill and Andy Reinhardt, from Byte 1994
    A look at the Magic Cap interface
Magic CapPenPointNewton OS“Sony releases Magic Cap device” by Andy Reinhardt, from Byte 1994
    A quick look at the first Magic Cap device
Lisa Office System“Inventing the Lisa User Interface” by Roderick Perkins, Dan Smith Keller, Frank Ludolph, from Interactions 1997
    An illustrated history of developing the Lisa GUI
Lisa Office System“The Lisa user interface” by Frank Ludolph and Roderick Perkins, from CHI ‘98 Conference Summary
    A short summary of Lisa’s interface principles
BeOSNeXTSTEP/OPENSTEP/RhapsodyIRIXXerox Star/ViewPoint/GlobalViewLisa Office SystemMac OSWindowsAmiga OSTOSOS/2“One thousand square pixels of canvas” by Marcin Wichary, 2003
    Exclusive: A paper on evolution of icons in graphical interfaces
Apple II“Apple II User Interfaces” by Tony Kavadias, 2004
    Exclusive: A very interesting and extensive look at text- and graphical-based user interfaces for Apple II
Copyright © 2002-2006 Marcin Wichary, unless stated otherwise.