GUIdebook: Graphical User Interface galleryHome > Articles > Theory
Go backArticlesTheory

Articles describing theory behind GUIs:

Sketchpad“Sketchpad: A man-machine graphical communication system” by Ivan E. Sutherland, from proceedings of AFIPS 1963
    The seminal paper describing Sketchpad, a system using the first graphical user interface
Xerox Star/ViewPoint/GlobalView“Microelectronics and the Personal Computer” by Alan C. Kay, from Scientific American 1977
    A seminal paper about the possibilities of personal computing, exemplified in Xerox Alto
Xerox Star/ViewPoint/GlobalView“Xerox xooms toward the office of the future” by Bro Uttal, from Fortune 1981
    An article about Xerox Star and changes in Xerox’s Office Products Division
Xerox Star/ViewPoint/GlobalView“The Star user interface: an overview” by David Canfield Smith, Charles Irby, Ralph Kimball and Eric Harslem, from proceedings of AFIPS 1982
    An illustrated description of the Xerox 8010 “Star” interface
Xerox Star/ViewPoint/GlobalView“Designing the Star User Interface” by Dr. David Canfield Smith, Charles Irby, Ralph Kimball, Bill Verplank and Eric Harslem, from Byte 1982
    Extensive breakdown of rules and ideas behind Xerox Star interface (with screenshots)
Lisa Office System“Lisa user interface guidelines”, 1983
    Fragments of Apple Lisa GUI guidelines
Xerox Star/ViewPoint/GlobalView“Human factors testing in the design of Xerox’s 8010 ‘Star’ office workstation” by William L. Bewley, Teresa L. Roberts, David Schroit and William L. Verplank, from CHI ‘83 Conference Proceedings
    A description of various user tests conducted while developing the Xerox Star user interface
Visi On“Visi On’s Interface Design” by George Woodmansee, from Byte 1983
    An article describing the methods and concepts used during creation of Visi On
Lisa Office System“The integrated software and user interface of Apple’s Lisa” by Edward W. Birss, from proceedings of the AFIPS 1984 National Computer Conference
    Description of basic rules governing the Lisa GUI
Visi On“The Visi On™ experience – From concept to marketplace” by George Woodmansee, from Proceedings of INTERACT ’84
    Similar paper from a Human-Computer Interaction conference, outlining Visi On’s development
Lisa Office System“Apple Lisa Graphical Object-Oriented User Interface” by David T. Craig, 1987
    An outline of Lisa’s user interface principles
“The cutting edge” by John C. Dvorak, from MacUser 1988
    A humorous look at the desktop metaphor
Xerox Star/ViewPoint/GlobalView“The Xerox Star: A retrospective” by Jeff Johnson, Teresa L. Roberts, William Verplank, David C. Smith, Charles H. Irby, Marian Beard and, from IEEE Computer 1989
    A description of Xerox Star’s design, development, features and evolution
“The myth of the interface” by Robin Nelson, from Personal Computing 1990
    Some thoughts on how the GUIs threaten the old-school computing
Windows“New interface dilemmas” by Jim Seymour, from PC Magazine 1992
    The problems with menus and drag-and-drop in GUIs and some ideas for the future
Mac OSWindows“Accelerators and toolbars: learning from the menu” by Alan Dix, 1995
    A paper proposing changes in menus that make accelerators and toolbars easier to learn
Xerox Star/ViewPoint/GlobalViewMac OS“Hands across the screen” by Alan Dix, 1997
    “Why are scrollbars on the right, and is it the best place for them?”
Lisa Office System“Inventing the Lisa User Interface” by Roderick Perkins, Dan Smith Keller, Frank Ludolph, from Interactions 1997
    An illustrated history of developing the Lisa GUI
Lisa Office System“The Lisa user interface” by Frank Ludolph and Roderick Perkins, from CHI ‘98 Conference Summary
    A short summary of Lisa’s interface principles
OS/2Xerox Star/ViewPoint/GlobalViewTOSLisa Office SystemNeXTSTEP/OPENSTEP/RhapsodyIRIXMac OSBeOSWindowsAmiga OS“One thousand square pixels of canvas” by Marcin Wichary, 2003
    Exclusive: A paper on evolution of icons in graphical interfaces
Copyright © 2002-2006 Marcin Wichary, unless stated otherwise.